The Illustrated Story of Copyright
© 2000 by Edward Samuels
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Photo Credits and Acknowledgments
 Try being polite.
Just politely try asking to use a character in a book, and see what it sometimes gets you. (The following is a response to one of my requests; the emphasis is in the original.)
Thank you for submitting your proposal requesting the rights to license the above referenced property for use in conjunction with your project. While we greatly appreciate your interest in our properties, due to a variety of business and legal considerations, we do not license the above mentioned for the purposes stated in your letter under any circumstances.
Please be advised that all material contained in and relating to the above-referenced property is copyrighted and we control all rights. Therefore, under no circumstances are you to use any materials of any characters from the films, the titles, or make any reference to the property for any purpose whatsoever.
The downside of copyright is that it’s quite an undertaking to track down and get all the permissions that are required. It’s cost me about twice my advance just to acquire the photos and pay for the permissions to use them. (Now I know why no one has ever written a book like this.) There are some people who suggested that I was getting a little fanatical about permissions, and that it would have been a lot cheaper, and not that much of a risk, to just use what I wanted under a fair use argument. Since the book is about copyright, however, I’ve tried to play by the rules.
Another downside is that I just wasn’t able to get permissions for some photos, no matter how much I was willing to pay. For example, I would have loved to have more examples of “characters” whose works are protected, but the owners of some of the most successful characters simply wouldn’t license the rights. I respect that, since one right to copyright is the right to say no; but it does mean my book is not as illustrated as I would have liked.
Many of the older works are in the public domain, so no permission was required. In a few instances, I’ve used works even when I was unable to track down the copyright owners after several attempts. And in a few instances, particularly in the case of defendants who  were found to have infringed, I’ve either not asked for permission, or used the defendants’ works without permission, under the fair use doctrine.
For the most part, however, the authors and other copyright owners were a very cooperative lot, and I thank all of them for helping to make this a more interesting and informative book.
In a few instances, after scanning in images, I’ve touched them up using Adobe Photoshop. For example, I cleaned up the image of the kinetoscope parlor, even though it previously has been published with a large blotch in the lower left corner. And I’ve taken out some imperfections in the images of Lew Wallace, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and the cover of the sheet music to After the Ball. In all such cases, I consider that my efforts restored the works to their previous condition, rather than altering the intentions of the original creators.
Photo credits are to pages. Where there is more than one picture on a page, the abbreviations are as follows: T=top; B=bottom; L=left; R=right; M=middle (either horizontally or vertically).
Introduction: Thomas Jefferson Never Saw Anything like This
4L Music at Uplawn, 1880s, photo by Leonard Dakin, New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, N.Y.
5L Ed Clark/Life magazine © Time, Inc.
5R, 6 © Edward Samuels
Chapter 1: Books and Other Literary Works
10TL Jan van der Straet’s Nova reperta, Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Smithsonian Institution
10TR, 10B © Bettmann/CORBIS
13 Reprinted from Harry Ransom, The First Copyright Statute: An Essay on an Act for the Encouragement of Learning, 1710 (1956)
15 H. B. Hall & Sons engraving of a portrait by Samuel F. B. Morse, Yale Picture Collection, Manuscript and Archives, Yale University Library
17 Collection of the New-York Historical Society, negative 277
19T, 19B Courtesy Xerox Historical Archives
 21 Courtesy National Institutes of Health
23L, 23R © Bion Smalley, reprinted by permission
Chapter 2: Music and Sound Recordings
32L Culver Pictures
32R Reprinted from Lynn Wenzel & Carol Binkowski, I Hear America Singing (1989)
33 Courtesy U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site
34T © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS
34B Photo by Clarence Thorne
36T Courtesy of Sears, Roebuck and Co.
37 © Diplomat Records
38T © Palace Records
38B © Damont Records Ltd.
39L © Eurovox Music, Rozenlaan 43, Schilde, Belgium
39M © Capitol Records, Inc.
39R © Audio Fidelity
41 Reprinted from National Geographic Society, Those Inventive Americans (1971)
42L, 42R Collection of the New-York Historical Society, negatives 73197 and 73198
42B Courtesy of Herbert Jacoby, photographer unknown
46L © Eastman Kodak Co., Industrial Laboratory, reproduced from C.P. Gilmore, The Scanning Electron Microscope: World of the Infinitely Small (1972), courtesy of Eastman Kodak Company. KODAK is a trademark.
46R “Stylus” illustration from The Way Things Work, by David Macauley. Compilation copyright © 1988 by Dorling Kindersley, Ltd. Illustration copyright © 1988 by David Macauley. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Co. All rights reserved.
47T Illustration by Chris Costello from Infoculture: The Smithsonian Book of Information Age Inventions, by Steven Lubar. Copyright © 1993 by Houghton Mifflin Co. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Co. All rights reserved.
47B Courtesy of Mark of the Unicorn
 Chapter 3: Movies and Television
56BL, 56BR Courtesy U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site
58 Culver Pictures
59T, 59B Billy Rose Theater Collection, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
60 Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-536
61 From The World Book Encyclopedia © 1957, by permission of World Book, Inc.
62T, 62B Photofest
67 Illustration by Chris Costello from Infoculture: The Smithsonian Book of Information Age Inventions, by Steven Lubar. Copyright © 1993 by Houghton Mifflin Co. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Co. All rights reserved.
68 Reprinted with permission. Paul Conrad. Los Angeles Times Syndicate, 1981.
73L, 73R © Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS
Chapter 4: The Computer
74 Illustration by Anita Costello
75 Cover photo by Jon Brenneis, by permission from Scientific American, Inc.
78TL Culver Pictures, by permission of Philips Electronics N.A. Corporation
78TR PAC-MAN ® © 1980, 1985 Namco Ltd. All rights reserved. Courtesy of Namco Holding Corp.
78BL, 78BR Copyright 200 Nintendo. Images courtesy of Nintendo Corp. of America, Inc.
83T, 83B, 87T Photos courtesy of Apple Computer, Inc.
87B Reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation
90L, 90TR, 90BR Reprinted by permission of Intel Corporation. Copyright Intel Corporation 2000
90 MR © Owen Franken/CORBIS
94T Illustration by Anti Costello
94BL © CMC Research
94BM By permission of DeLorme Mapping
94BR Reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation
 96T Photograph has been altered using Kai’s Power Goo software. This image belongs to Scansoft, Inc. www.scansoft.com
96M, 96B © Claire Samuels 2000, using Ray Dream Studio
Chapter 5: The Internet
97T Detail from Men of Progress, by Christian Schussele, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
99B Collection of the New-York Historical Society, negative 28545
100L National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
100R Property of AT&T Archives. Reprinted with permission of AT&T
107 By permission of MIT
109L, 109R By permission of IBM, Ogilvy & Mather, Denis Leary, and Jeremy Blake Collins
113L, 113R Photo by Dave McFarland, reprinted by permission of Macworld magazine
118 © The New Yorker Collection 2000 Jack Ziegler from cartoonbank.com. All rights reserved.
121L © TotalNEWS
121R © Fox News Network, L.L.C.
Chapter 6: What Does Copyright Protect?
129 © 2000 Sesame Workshop. © 2000 Jim Henson Company
132L, 132R © New York City Transit Authority, used with permission of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority
133 Reprinted from Samuels F.B. Morse, by William Kloss, The Vincent Price Treasury of American Art
134 Reprinted from Rockwell Kent, World Famous Paintings (1939)
135L, 135R By permission Bridgeman Art Library
136 Reprinted from Roy Meredith, The World of Mathew Brady: Portraits of the Civil War Period (1970)
137 Photo by Napoleon Sarony, reprinted from New York Metropolitan Museum postcard, Gilman Paper Co. collection
139 Reprint courtesy of Eastman Kodak Company. KODAK is a trademark.
140L Culver Pictures
140R The Harvard Theatre Collection, The Houghton Library, Harvard University
141 Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-24541
 142L, 142R Photos by Clarence Thorne, banks courtesy of Robert Faber
143L The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Edward D. Adams, 1908 (08.210). All rights reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
143M, 143R Photos by Clarence Thorne, courtesy National Archives and Records Administration, New York
145TL, 145TR Courtesy Dance Notation Bureau, from Muriel Topaz, Elementary Labanotation: A Study Guide (1966) (illustrations by Jessica Segall)
145BL Eventide, choreographed by Paul Taylor (1996-97) notated by Siân Ferguson (1996-97)
145BR © Johan Elbers, 1997 from Eventide, by Paul Taylor; Lisa Viola and Richard Chen See, dancers
146L, 146R Suzanne DeChillo/NYT Pictures
147 Culver Pictures. The Maltese Falcon © 1941 Turner Entertainment Co. A Time Warner Company. All rights reserved.
148TL, 148TR, 148ML Courtesy King Features Syndicate and National Archives and Records Administration, New York, photos by Clarence Thorne
148BL Superman is a trademark of DC Comics © 2000. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
148BR Tarzan and His Mate ©1934 Turner Entertainment Co. A Time Warner Company. All Rights Reserved.
149L By permission of U.S. Television Office, Inc.
149R By permission of Foxrock Books, Inc.
Chapter 7: What Rights Does Copyright Grant?
153L Culver Pictures. The Cohens and the Kellys copyright © 2000 Universal City Studios, Inc. Courtesy of Universal Studios Publishing Rights. All rights Reserved.
153R Billy Rose Theater Collection, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
154T Vandamm Studio, Billy Rose Theater Collection, the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
154B Culver Pictures
156L, 156R By permission of Henry Glass & Co., photos by Clarence Thorne, courtesy National Archives and Records Administration, New York
157T Copyright © 1976 Estate of Saul Steinberg/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, with permission of The New Yorker Magazine, Inc.
 158TL, 158TR By permission of Sid and Marty Krofft Productions
158BL, 158BR © McDonald’s Corporation
160L © Edward Samuels 2000
160R Thanks to the Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust
161L © John Duke Kisch—Separate Cinema Archive
162T © Howard Alt
165 From Alex Brychta, The Legend: The Illustrated Story of the Bee Gees (1983) (illustration by David English), by permission
176L © Fantasy Records
176R © Warner Bros.
179 All © Business Software Alliance, by permission
Chapter 8: Copyright Limitations, Exclusions, and Compromises
181L Cuesheet to King of Kings, Paramount Pictures, reprinted from John Baxter, Sixty Year of Hollywood (1973)
182 By permission of Girl Scouts of the USA
185 Chair by Eero Saarinen, Knoll International, photo from Robert Bishop and Patricia Coblenz, American Decorative Arts (1982)
186 © Spiegel Publishing Company 1999 (year of first publication). Disney characters © Disney Enterprises, Inc., used by permission
187 Martha Holmes/Life Magazine © Time, Inc.
190 © Bion Smalley, reprinted by permission
193L © 1992 Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images, courtesy of the artist
193M Courtesy of Paramount Pictures. Naked Gun 33-1/3 Copyright © 2000 by Paramount Pictures. All rights reserved.
193R Photographed by Carolyn Jones. Paintbox photo illustration by Phillip Hefferman, Copyright Spy Magazine, L.P.
194TL © Art Rogers/Pt. Reyes, by permission
194B “Odie” © Paws, Inc. All rights reserved.
195TL The Cat in the Hat™ & © Dr. Seuss Enterprises, L.P. 1957. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
 195BL Green Eggs and Ham™ & © Dr. Seuss Enterprises, L.P. 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
196TL Photofest. From Here to Eternity © 1953, renewed 1981 Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. All rights reserved. Courtesy of Columbia Pictures.
196BL Photofest. “Your Show of Shows” courtesy of NBC Studios, Inc.
196TR Photofest, Gaslight © 1944 Turner Entertainment Co. A Time Warner Company. All rights reserved.
196BR Photofest. Used by permission of CBS Photo Archive.
198TR Disney Characters © Disney Enterprises, Inc., used by permission
198B MAD is a trademark of E.C. Publications, Inc.. © 2000. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
199L, 199R Courtesy of Lil’ Joe Records, Inc./Lil’ Joe Wein Music (BMI)
203T © Sixth Floor, c/o Jamie Silverberg
Chapter 9: Other Major Copyright Principles
207 Tom the Dancing Bug © 1998 Ruben Bolling. Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.
208 Culver Pictures
210 © Michael Freeman, reprinted by permission
214 By permission of Community For Creative Non-Violence, photograph by Gayle Krughoff
217 Rear Window copyright © 2000 by Universal City Studios, Inc. Courtesy of Universal Studios Publishing Rights. All Rights. Reserved.
220 © MGM/UA
226L By permission of Hugo Zacchini, the younger, son of Edmond
226M Photo by Bud Skinner, © 1977 Pro Arts, Inc., Medina, Ohio
227R Photograph © Bob Scott, by permission
228L, 228R AP/Wide World Photos
Chapter 10: International Copyright Relations
232 Reprinted from Barry Pritzker, Mathew Brady (1992)
235 By permission of Philips Electronics N.A. Corporation
239 Culvert Pictures
247 M.C. Escher’s Drawing Hands © 2000 Cordon Art B.V.-Baarn—Holland. All rights reserved.